On this page, you will find resources applying to the Doctrine of Discovery (Doctrine).  Some specifically reference the term Doctrine of Discovery.  Many resources speak to historical injustices perpetrated on people of color by White governments and institutional structures; most all of these arise out of privilege and subjugation arising from the Doctrine of Discover.

Land Acknowledgement Resources

Native Governance Center

Native Land

Books on the Doctrine of Discovery

Visit our Bookshop to buy many of the books listed here.

From an American Indian Perspective:

God is Red: A Native View of Religion,
by Vine Deloria Jr.
Missionary Conquest: The Gospel and Native American Cultural Genocide,
by George E. Tinker.
Pagans in the Promised Land: Decoding the Doctrine of Christian Discovery,
by Steven T. Newcomb.
Native America, Discovered and Conquered: Thomas Jefferson, Lewis and Clark, and Manifest Destiny,
by Robert J. Miller and Elizabeth Furse.
Discovering Indigenous Lands: The Doctrine of Discovery in the English Colonies.
By Robert J. Miller, Jacinta Ruru, Larissa Behrendt and Tracey Lindberg.
Theraputic Nations: Healing in an Age of Indigenous Human Rights (Critical Issues in Indigenous Studies). By Dian Million
The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance,
Edited by M. Annette Jaimes.
Romanus Pontifex or Discovery Doctrine:
Gold and Genocide, The True Story of the California Gold Rush
The Daily Republican, September 24, 1883, Winona, Minnesota
Thomas Jefferson: 2nd Inaugural Address, (1805) 1743 – 1826
President Andrew Jackson’s message to Congress, (Indian Removal Act of 1830) 1767 – 1845
President James K. Polk, Inaugural Address, 1844
National Congress of American Indians Resolution, September 13, 2007

From a Person of Color Perspective:

Room at the Table: Struggle for Unity and Equality in Disciple History,
by Sandhya Jha.
The Cost of Unity: African-American Agency and Education in the Christian Church, 1865-1914, by Lawrence A.Q. Burnley.

From an Anti-Racist Perspective:

Beyond Inclusion, Beyond Empowerment,
by Leticia Nieto.
Born Apart, Becoming One: Disciples Defeating Racism
by William Chris Hobgood.
Understanding & Dismantling Racism: The Twenty-First Century Challenge to White America, by Joseph Barndt.

Click Here for An Annotated Bibliography of many of these books and a few others…

Resolutions and Decisions concerning the Doctrine of Discovery

Find the Disciples of Christ call to Research and Reflection at:
DOC Resolution GA-1324
DOC Resolution GA-1722

The Doctrine Of Discovery
Use this website to find documents and resolutions pertaining to the DoD.
*Episcopal Church: Repudiate the Doctrine of Discovery
*United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
* Johnson vs. McIntosh: March 10, 1823
* The Monroe Doctrine: December 2, 1823
* The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander VI): May 4, 1493
* Quaker Indian Committee disavows Doctrine of Discovery, affirms Declaration
Quaker Disavowal of the Doctrine of Discovery

World Council of Churches Statement on the DOD at:

Find the Unitarian Universalist Association repudiation of the DoD at:
And search for “Doctrine of Discovery.”

Find the United Church of Christ repudiation of the DOD at:

Find the Leadership Conference of Women Religious call to the Pope for repudiation of the DOD at:

Find Link to Denominational Statements


Pomo Homelands – Coalition to Save Jackson Demonstration State Forest
A movement for earth economy with the Jackson “Demonstration” State Forest and the Pomo people.  You will gain an idea of the human energy earth care needs in our current context.

Stolen Lands, Strong Hearts
The Anglican Church of Canada
One of the responses of the Anglican Church’s Primate’s Commission on Discovery, Reconciliation and Justice.

“The Doctrine of Discovery: In the Name of Christ”
This 43-minute documentary has three parts:
*History of the Doctrine of Discovery and its basis in Christian theology and scripture
*Living the Doctrine of Discovery (starting at 20:21)
*Undoing the Doctrine of Discovery (starting at 29:50)
Study Guide

The Doctrine of Discovery unmasking The Code Domination

Visit the above site to arrange a showing in your community.

What Is The Doctrine of Discovery?
This video is one consideration on understanding the Doctrine of Discovery

Quaker Indian Boarding Schools
This video is helpful to understand how a people engage in a reflection of the historical Native work they  have been part of.

Study Resources

Visions of Wholeness: 2022 Tulsa Conference
Disciples/Christians and Indigenous Nations (Presentations)
Lisa Barnett: Disciples and the ‘F’ Word: How our Focus on The Significance of
the Frontier
Causes Us to Lose Sight of our Legacy of Conquest

Joshua Shawnee: Not of This Fold: Exploring the Historical Complexities of Native Identity within a Contemporary North American Christian Context
David Bell: One Hundred Years of Solicitude: A Movements Disfiguring of American Indigeneity

United Methodist Church: Office of Christian Unity and Interreligious Relationships
Walking the Trail of Repentance & Healing with Indigenous Persons

United Church of Christ
UCC Doctrine of Discovery Resources

Lakota People’s Law Project Reports
Law Project Reports

Mennonite: Anabaptist Movement
Dismantling The Doctrine of Discovery

Conscious Elders Network

Episcopal / Anglican
Children Resources

Christian Church (Disciple Of Christ)
Landscape Mending
Landscape Mending Resource Manual

1987 Northwest Disciples Apology to Northwest Tribes

I Pledge Allegiance: Examining The Doctrine of Discovery
In Light of the Realm of God

Presentation Resources

PowerPoint Presentation for Trained Presenters
(Contact David Bell for the presentation and training opportunities)